渗透测试DNS重绑定

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  • 时间:2022-05-17 15:17:05
简介 渗透测试DNS重绑定

前言

SSRF绕过的一种思路,就是利用DNS重绑定,它也被广泛用于绕过同源策略,本质就是欺骗客户端请求的IP地址。

但是之前都是用如xip.io等别人搭建好的平台去利用,没有自己搞过,也没能彻底理解其中的原理

DNS重绑定

浏览网页过程中,用户在地址栏中输入包含域名的网址,浏览器通过DNS服务器将域名解析为IP地址,然后向对应的IP地址请求资源,最后展现给用户。即 域名 => 公共DNS服务器 => IP

但是作为域名的所有者,可以随时设置解析IP,举例如下:

用户第一次访问,解析域名test.gm7.org的IP为104.21.26.222

在用户第二次访问前,修改域名解析的IP为127.0.0.1

用户第二次访问,解析域名test.gm7.org的IP为127.0.0.1

[!tip]

一般来说我们的操作系统默认能够将DNS返回来的这个IP地址信息保存60秒,而超过60秒后如果需要再次访问这个域名,就会重新去请求一次dns

对于浏览器来说,两次访问的都是同一域名,是符合浏览器的同源策略的,但是第二次访问解析到其他IP,调用到了其他资源。这样的行为被称之为域名重新绑定攻击(DNS ReBinding)。

[!tip]

简而言之:当我们发起域名解析请求的时候,第一次访问会返回一个ip地址A,但是当我们发起第二次域名解析请求的时候,却会返回一个不同于A的ip地址B。

实现方法

ceye

ceye.io个人信息最下方,可以设置解析IP,具体说明:http://ceye.io/dns-rebinding

有一个注意点:就是每次都是随机返回一个设置的IP,所以可能大概率碰运气

1652076940_6278b18cc4a3894187d2c.png?1652076941019


验证:

重绑定使用域名:r.abcdef.ceye.io or *.r.abcdef.ceye.io

1652076950_6278b196926f987755b1e.png?1652076952153

基础自建

前提是有域名,然后增加一个A记录和一个NS记录

1652076963_6278b1a3f10a230e9745b.png?1652076964123

此时访问dra.gm7.org域名,先解析该域名的DNS域名为dr.gm7.org,指向10开头的这台服务器。

在10开头的这台服务器上,运行如下python脚本

[!tip]

在ubuntu中,可能会遇到53端口被占用情况,可以尝试

service systemd-resolved stop
service named stop

# pip2 install twisted
# sudo python2 thiss.py

from twisted.internet import reactor, defer
from twisted.names import client, dns, error, server
record={}
classDynamicResolver(object):
def_doDynamicResponse(self, query):
name = query.name.name
ifname notinrecord orrecord[name]1:
ip = "114.114.114.114"
else:
ip = "127.0.0.1"
ifname notinrecord:
record[name] = 0
record[name] += 1
print name + " ===> " + ip
answer = dns.RRHeader(
name = name,
type = dns.A,
cls = dns.IN,
ttl = 0,
payload = dns.Record_A(address = b'%s' % ip, ttl=0)
)
answers = [answer]
authority = []
additional = []
returnanswers, authority, additional
defquery(self, query, timeout=None):
returndefer.succeed(self._doDynamicResponse(query))
defmain():
factory = server.DNSServerFactory(
clients=[DynamicResolver(), client.Resolver(resolv='/etc/resolv.conf')]
)
protocol = dns.DNSDatagramProtocol(controller=factory)
reactor.listenUDP(53, protocol)
reactor.run()
if__name__ == '__main__':
raiseSystemExit(main())

1652076997_6278b1c5ab0ed0eb1b6f9.png?1652076998297

singularity

A DNS rebinding attack framework. https://github.com/nccgroup/singularity

wiki: https://github.com/nccgroup/singularity/wiki

主要针对绕过SOP,也可用于绕过SSRF

安装配置

[!note]

也需要一个域名,域名配置和上面自建一样,一个A记录一个NS记录

安装:需要go环境

git clone https://github.com/nccgroup/singularity
cd singularity/cmd/singularity-server
go build

部署web界面:

给二进制文件移动到html目录同级

1652077015_6278b1d77cff7afdc2d99.png?1652077016570

直接运行二进制文件即可启动

1652077023_6278b1df4e4735cc5e03e.png?1652077023585

访问管理页面:8080端口

1652077030_6278b1e66a13edbaa3d0b.png?1652077030803

基础使用

进入管理页面,输入参数,开始攻击后拿到域名

1652077036_6278b1ec32da25e481d2a.png?1652077036528

multiple answers策略设置下的效果

1652077047_6278b1f7633be3916fd1a.png?1652077047691

其他Rebinding Strategy说明见下方,在multiple answers策略下,浏览器会拿到多个dns响应,首先会尝试用第一个连接,失败之后就会尝试另一个,这时就实现了DNS重绑定。这个其实算是一个正常功能,也非常常见,可以说是DNS层面的负载均衡技术。

Manager UI说明

manager web界面是配置和启动DNS重新绑定攻击的地方。默认情况下,它监听端口8080。下表介绍了管理器界面中的所有表单字段和按钮:

Field Name

Description

Attack Host Domain

This is the (sub-)domain where the Singularity web server is running. Default value: d.rebind.it

Attack Host

This is the IP address where the manager and the attack payloads are hosted. Default value: xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx

Target Host

This is the IP address or FQDN (e.g. jenkins.internal.target.com) of the target system where the victim (target) application is running. Default value: 127.0.0.1

Target Port

This is the port where the victim (target) application is listening on. Default value: 8080

Request New Port

This will request Singularity to listen on a new port. This feature is only available when Singularity has been started with the -dangerouslyAllowDynamicHTTPServers command line option.

Attack Payload

This is where you select the payload, i.e. which application you are trying to exploit.

Start Attack

Start the DNS rebinding attack. Be patient and wait for at least one minute. Open the browser web console to see debugging logs.

Toggle Advanced Options

This button will enable the advanced fields described below.

Rebinding Strategy

Specify how to respond to DNS queries from a victim client. The following options are available:

* First then second (default, conservative): This is the default value. It should work on most if not all platforms in 40 to 60 seconds.
* Multiple answers: Near instant DNS rebinding attack! Make sure to set the interval option described below to 1 second and the target address if attacking the local host to "0.0.0.0" for Unix-like platforms (e.g. Linux, macOS) and to "127.0.0.1" (or any other valid local host addresses) for Microsoft Windows.
* Round robin (IPS/filters evasion): Alternate DNS responses between the attack and target host IP addresses.
* Random (IPS/filters evasion): Randomly alternate DNS responses between the attack and target host IP addresses.

Interval

How long to wait between connection attempts to the target application in seconds. Default value: 20

Flood DNS Cache

Perform ~1000 DNS queries to evict cached DNS entries in Google Chrome and to improve DNS rebind attack speed from ~60s down to ~20s. Useful with the following DNS rebinding strategies: First then second, Round robin, Random. Default value: unset

Index Token

The index token is used by Singularity to detect if the rebinding has happened yet. Default value: thisismytesttoken.

参考文章